What are the Types of deformational Head Shapes?

deformational plagiocephaly

Deformational Plagiocephaly

  • The most common type of skull deformity in infants. 
  • Normally noticed by caregivers at about six to ten weeks of age.
  • Characterized by an asymmetrical skull shape. 
  • Unilateral occipital flattening.
  • Ear is positioned more anterior on the side of the occipital flattening. 
  • Forehead may be asymmetrical and is positioned more anterior on the side of the occipital flattening. 
  • Facial asymmetry may be present.
  • May be accompanied by torticollis, limited neck range of motion, weakness and preferential head positioning. 
 

Deformational Brachycephaly 

  • Central occipital flattening
  • Increased  cranial vault height posteriorly. The head is excessively wide for its length.
  • May be accompanied by a prominent, bossed forehead. 
 
deformational brachycephaly with asymmetry

Deformational Brachycephaly with Asymmetry

  • Combination of brachycephalic and plagiocephalic characteristics. 
  • The shape is disproportionately wide for its length and is also asymmetrical.
  • May or may not include asymmetries to the forehead and facial structure. 
 
deformational scaphocephaly

Deformational Scaphocephaly

  • Very elongated head shape that is excessively long for its width.
  • May be accompanied by a prominent, bossed forehead.
  • Deformational Scaphocephaly caused by extrinsic forces is uncommon although it is sometimes seen in premature infants who are often positioned side lying, such as NICU infants.
  • Scaphocephaly caused by extrinsic positioning may be confused with sagittal synostosis, a more serious deformity that usually requires surgery to correct.