What are the Types of deformational Head Shapes?

deformational plagiocephaly

Deformational Plagiocephaly

  • The most common type of skull deformity in infants.

  • Normally noticed by caregivers at about six to ten weeks of age.

  • Characterized by an asymmetrical skull shape.

  • Unilateral occipital flattening.

  • Ear is positioned more anterior on the side of the occipital flattening.

  • Forehead may be asymmetrical and is positioned more anterior on the side of the occipital flattening.

  • Facial asymmetry may be present.

  • May be accompanied by torticollis, limited neck range of motion, weakness and preferential head positioning.

 

Deformational Brachycephaly 

  • Central occipital flattening

  • Increased cranial vault height posteriorly. The head is excessively wide for its length.

  • May be accompanied by a prominent, bossed forehead.

 
deformational brachycephaly with asymmetry

Deformational Brachycephaly with Asymmetry

  • Combination of brachycephalic and plagiocephalic characteristics.

  • The shape is disproportionately wide for its length and is also asymmetrical.

  • May or may not include asymmetries to the forehead and facial structure.

 
deformational scaphocephaly

Deformational Scaphocephaly

  • Very elongated head shape that is excessively long for its width.

  • May be accompanied by a prominent, bossed forehead.

  • Deformational Scaphocephaly caused by extrinsic forces is uncommon although it is sometimes seen in premature infants who are often positioned side lying, such as NICU infants.

  • Scaphocephaly caused by extrinsic positioning may be confused with sagittal synostosis, a more serious deformity that usually requires surgery to correct.